Chapter 5 Civil Rights: Chapter 5 Civil Rights is about the rights of all Americans to equal treatment under the law, as provided for by the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. It is important to know that an earlier Amendments which was ratified in 1791, the Fifth Amendment, which states, “no person shall be…deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law..,” was created to protect individual rights, property, due process that could be abridged or taken away by the federal government.

The ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868 later extended the protection of abridgement of rights by state governments, “no State shall…deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, with the due process of law…’ The Fourteenth Amendment was launched out of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 (after the Civil War) which granted U.S. citizenship to all people born in the United States. The Act also reversed the Dred Scott v. Sandford (1856) decision (before the Civil War), which declared that slaves or freedmen were not and could not become citizens of the United States or enjoy any of the privileges and immunities of citizenship. In addition, the Fourteenth Amendment was limited to protecting citizens from the powers of state governments but not the private sector until Congress passed a supplementary and definitive Civil Rights Act legislation under its Commerce Clause power the 1960s.

The authors of Chapter 5 Civil Rights first introduces terminology surrounding the civil rights such as the Equal Protection Clause. The chapter is then outlined by groups in America, who have experienced unequal treatment, and how laws or unequal treatment has effected or is presently affecting them through abridgement of their civil rights. The chapter covers how governments and courts have addressed those groups, through the Bill of Rights, especially through the Fourteenth Amendment, through Due Process, the Civil Rights Act, and other principles of government.

The Module Week-4 discussion topics asked students to discuss a few issues surrounding the cases. (You must read and know terminology in chapter 5 civil rights, and have researched the cases on (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. before you attempt the discussion.)

Topic: Brown v. Board of Education

1. Discuss: Since Brown case how has it help bring equality of education for all Americans?

2. Discuss: What changes has it brought in respect to educating viable citizens for the workforce in labor skilled jobs, professional and management jobs of all races since the 1960s- present?


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