As you read in Chapter 4 section 4.4, the centerpiece of the rehearsal phase of metacognition is the strategy card. After decoding tasks and strategizing how to FIT your Learning Patterns to the task, you can use your knowledge of your Learning Patterns to develop personal strategies to direct your efforts. The most efficient way to do this is to develop a personal strategy card.
Strategy cards convert general study skills into personalized strategies for learning based on each learner’s Patterns. Personal strategy cards are essential to effective rehearsal because they help you address the requirements that you have decoded from the assignment and they help you connect to the instructor’s expectations. Strategy cards help you organize your approach to achieving success on the task. They allow you to practice “smarter, not harder.”
You are more effective when you develop a strategy card for each major task or assignment. In doing so, you become more disciplined and you match your efforts to each requirement. In preparation for your reflection assignment that you will complete in Week 5, we will use the Week 5 Final Reflection assignment instructions for the decoding section of this strategy card. This way, next week, you’ll be able to approach your assignment with intention as you skillfully apply your Learning Patterns.
Directions: Your task is to complete your own Personal Strategy Card.
b. You will be filling out the Personal Strategy Card form below to complete the assignment.
EXP 105: Week 4
Personal Strategy Card
A. LCI Scores
|Record your LCI scores in the boxes provided.||31||25||18||22|
B. Carefully describe the degree to which you use each of your Learning Patterns.
(Refer to the Personal Learning Profile you developed for your Week Two assignment and any feedback provided by your instructor to determine if you need to refine your responses as you complete this section.)
C. Identify all verbs and specific terms from the assignment instructions and describe how each Learning Pattern will be used to effectively complete the Week 5 assignment.
(Critically review the Final Reflection assignment in Week Five and decode it.)
D. Explain how you will Forge, Intensify, or Tether (FIT) your Learning Patterns to implement personal strategies so you can complete the Week Five assignment efficiently and effectively.
(If you do not need to FIT a Pattern, include a description of the strategies you naturally use which help you to be successful on these types of tasks.)
Click to view a Model Personal Strategy Card (tips included!). Many students have found that the instructions in this guide was invaluable for completing the assignment successfully.
· Section A: List your LCI scores in the indicated boxes on the Personal Strategy Card.
· Section B: Carefully describe the degree to which you use each of your Learning Patterns. Refer to the Personal Learning Profile you developed for your Week Two assignment and any feedback provided by your instructor to determine if you need to refine your responses as you complete this section.
· Section C: Critically review the Final Reflection assignment instructions and decode them. Click here to download a copy of the Week 5 Final Reflection instructions (in the online classroom). Identify all verbs and specific terms from the assignment instructions and describe how each Learning Pattern will be used to effectively complete the Week 5 assignment.
· Section D: Explain how you will forge, intensify, or tether (FIT) your Learning Patterns to implement personal strategies so you can complete the Week Five assignment efficiently and effectively. If you do not need to FIT a Pattern, include a description of the strategies you naturally use which help you to be successful on these types of tasks.
c. Save your work and then submit your Word document using Waypoint.
4.4 The Action Phases of Metacognition
What follows is a list of the action phases that your mind goes through as it completes a learning task. The terms (seeFigure 4.2) are words chosen to represent what occurs in each phase.
These are not scientific terms, but instead learner-friendly descriptive words that allow a student to observe andunderstand what is going on in his or her mind. They were chosen to help students respond to the age-old question:”What are you thinking?” and the equally frustrating criticism frequently leveled at them: “You know I can’t read yourmind!”
Phase 1: Mull
Virtually all tasks begin with some form of mulling—meaning you get inside the assignment or the task and seek tounderstand, “What am I being asked to do? Have I ever done this before? What were the results? Do I want to repeatthose results or avoid them?” You don’t start to do anything until you have a sense of where you are going and howyou are going to do it. If the voices of your Patterns are crying out for clearer directions or a greater sense of purpose,then ask for what you need. Don’t let the frustration of not knowing how to start the task escalate from simmeringquestions to boiling anger. Mulling is healthy; boiling isn’t. To avoid reaching that level of frustration, clarify what isexpected of you by decoding the assignment.
Decoding is a learning strategy that helps you mull and connect metacognitively to the instructor’s expectations. Thegoal of decoding is twofold: 1) to identify and clarify the intent of the directions—that is, what the instructor expectsfrom you; and 2) to complete the task in the way your instructor expects it to be done.
A pivotal tool to assist in decoding is a word wall; it is a chart divided into four sectors, with each sector labeled for adifferent Learning Pattern (see Figure 4.3). By using the cue words from the word wall to indicate what Patterns arerequired to complete the task, you can decode assignments, objectives, or any course-related task.
Figure 4.3: Word Wall
Which decoding words do you think will help you decipher assignments the most?
Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.
When you are just beginning to learn how to decode, use a generic word wall. As you become experienced at findingthe cue words in your assignments, add more of them to the word wall. As you take more specialized courses, buildyour own word wall by identifying the key terms associated with each subject and associating them with each of thefour Learning Patterns.
Decoding tasks accurately is the main point of mulling. The steps to decoding are the following:
1. First, read the directions for the task.
2. Next, circle the verbs, specific terms, and titles that are intended to direct you.
3. Then, using the word wall, find the words you circled within the assignment, noting the Learning Pattern that eachword falls under. Go back to the directions, and above each word, write the first letter of the Learning Pattern it isdirecting you to use. See Figure 4.4 for an example.
Figure 4.4: Decoding an Assignment: Critical Thinking
Decoding a task is an efficient way to discern what the task requires.
Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.
By breaking down the assignment into the Learning Patterns required, you have a much clearer understanding of whatis expected of you. At least three of the actions to be taken require the use of Precision. Only one requires Sequenceand one requires Technical Reasoning. This assignment calls for no Confluence. That means that the instructor is notasking for your outside-the-box ideas or unique perspective. The instructor wants an accurate description of criticalthinking (Precision) presented in a concise (Technical Reasoning) bulleted list (Sequence). Decoding the task clarifiedhow to proceed and meet the instructor’s expectations.
Now try your hand at decoding the task described in Figure 4.5. Which would you circle as the key action words andspecific terms and titles? Refer to the word wall to find each of your circled words, and determine the letter of theLearning Pattern that should go above the word(s). Remember: All terms and phrases fall under Precision even thoughthey may not be listed specifically under that category.
Figure 4.5: Decoding an Assignment: Transformational Learning Process
The more involved the requirements, the more important it is that you decode the assignment beforestarting.
Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.
What specific Learning Patterns are going to be required to complete this task? Can you identify when you will need tobe using one Pattern more than another? Knowing the Patterns that you will be called upon to use when completing aspecific task helps you feel more confident about what the instructor’s expectations are for the assignment, and whatyou are being asked to do to complete it.
Dan, Cassie, and Nia all need to learn how to decode their assignments; it will save them valuable time, improve theirlearning outcomes, and increase their grades. Remember Dan’s dilemma? Instead of generating ideas or organizing histhoughts, Dan became fixated on the belief that he had no idea what he was supposed to be doing. Cassie was faringeven worse: She sat in front of her computer rereading the directions for the assignment, trying to guess what theinstructor wanted her to do. Nia didn’t even realize that she needed to take the time to mull and decode theassignment, which required a critical analysis with support from three sources. She simply wrote a paper stating heropinion of the article.
All three used their study time inefficiently and ineffectively because they did not take the time to mull the assignmentand decode it. If they had, they would have saved valuable time and submitted work that matched the expectations ofthe instructor.
Phase 2: Connect
The second action phase of metacognition is the act of mindfully connecting to the assignment. If you have mulled anddecoded the assignment accurately, then you begin to make connections to the requirements of the task. Of coursethere are various types of assignments, but most involve critical reading and critical writing, and each requires that youinteract with text.
Connecting to Your Reading
Using the steps below to guide you, connect your ideas and experiences to the content of an assigned reading(s):
· As you’re reading, think of a similar assignment you’ve had in the past. In your mind, can you begin to comparewhat you are reading now to what you have read in the past?
· Jot down questions that cross your mind. Post your questions and read others’ responses to them.
· Search for relevancy in the assigned reading. “Deep read” the passage, rather than skimming it.
· Anticipate the conclusion of the assigned reading before you complete it. Are you surprised by the outcome?
Understand what you are reading:
· Look for a thread of logic or a progression of thought (e.g., Step 1, Step 2, Step 3).
· Pick out new terminology and look up words you didn’t know.
· Search for the central point; pull it together from different parts of the reading if it is not explicitly stated.
· Consider the reading from several different angles.
Connect to the points in what you are reading by asking yourself:
· Do you feel you were “of like mind” with the author?
· Do the facts speak to you?
· Can you relate your own experiences to its message?
· Do you see any parts of the reading as a jumping off point for your own thinking?
Regardless of the type of assignment, intentional learners use their Learning Patterns to connect to the task, first bymulling and decoding, and next by connecting to it.
Neither Dan, nor Cassie, nor Nia invest in connecting to their assignments. Each allows personal issues, including self-doubt, fear of failure, and lack of personal investment of time, to get in the way of completing the assignmentsuccessfully. None is likely to succeed on current or future assignments if each continues his or her current approach.Conversely, if they allow their Patterns to guide them in connecting fully with the task at hand, they are much morelikely to succeed (Johnston, 2005; Johnston, 2006).
FIT: Forge, Intensify, Tether
A second aspect of connecting to the assignment involves fitting yourself to the task. FIT is an acronym comprised ofthe first letter of the words Forge, Intensify, and Tether. FIT describes the type of self-regulation you need to use inorder to fit your Learning Patterns specifically to the task you are facing. Your goal should be to match the amount ofeach Learning Pattern required of you to the amount of that Pattern you use.
Take for example, the task decoded earlier (see Figure 4.4):
“Write in bulleted form a brief description of critical thinking.”
When decoded, you recognize that the task requires you to use Precision (as noted by three different terms, write,define, and critical thinking) first and foremost. Suppose your Precision, at a score of 18, is borderline Avoid/Use asNeeded. In order for you to complete the task successfully, you will need to temporarily increase or forge yourPrecision to fit the task. Once you are conscious of the possible disconnect between the assignment and your LearningPatterns, you can do something about it. Even though you don’t enjoy operating at a high level of Precision, you areable to do so once you recognize what the task calls for and you find a strategy to help you increase your Precision tocomplete the task.
As noted in Figure 4.5, the assignment you decoded requires you to do the following:
Of the 17 key words decoded in this assignment, 12 require the use of Precision. Two require Sequence, and threerequire Technical Reasoning. None requires the use of Confluence. Clearly the assignment requires a great deal ofPrecision and a moderate use of Sequence and Technical Reasoning. But what if your Learning Patterns don’t match theassignment? Do you give up? No, you take action and forge the Pattern until it fits the level of Precision required by theassignment.
The term forge is intended to be applied to those Patterns that fall between 07 and 17 on the LCI “degree of use”continuum. The purpose of forging a Pattern is to increase the use and performance of it. Forging requires you to workin a way that you would usually prefer not to. However, because you know the Pattern is necessary for the task, youseek to make proper and appropriate use of it. Impossible? No. Does it require your attention and intention?Absolutely! It also requires an increased use of mental energy.
The amount of mental energy needed to alter your natural level of performance in a Pattern is directly related to thedegree you are required to use it. For example, Dan avoids Confluence (14). He is not a risk-taker, and this assignmentis asking him to do something he has never done before. In addition, he almost avoids Precision (18). Therefore, whenhe is required to “write, describe, and explain” a specific term, his tendency to avoid Precision has him feeling stressedand filled with doubt about his writing ability. Consequently, he needs to use a significant amount of energy to intensify(energize) his Precision and forge (increase) his Confluence in order to free himself to take on the assignment andbelieve he can achieve.
Cassie, too, has a Pattern she avoids: Technical Reasoning (10). It is not easy for Cassie to problem-solve. By notknowing how to use her Technical Reasoning to ground her Precision (29) and make it work for her, she allows hermind to go round and round in circles, never certain of what to do or how to proceed. Her Technical Reasoning couldprove helpful to her in completing the assignment if she knew how to put forth the mental energy to forge its use. Forexample, she could use her Sequence to plan a step-by-step approach to forging her Technical Reasoning and solve theproblem she is facing.
Forging is a metacognitive skill that takes patience, practice, and determination. Forging a Pattern is a challenge. Thesame is not the case if you use a Pattern at the Use as Needed level. Then increasing the use of it requires only thatyou intensify it.
The term intensify is intended to be used with the Patterns that you Use as Needed. Use as Needed Patterns scores fallfrom 18 to 24 on the LCI continuum. They are the “quiet” ones that stay in the background until called upon. If theyoperate closer to the Avoid edge of the Use as Needed continuum, then they remain almost dormant unless awakened.If they operate at close to the Use First edge of the Use as Needed continuum, then they are more actively and readilyavailable for use without a great deal of effort. Your Use as Needed Patterns provide a rich set of options for you. Theyprovide a counterweight to the extremes of your Use First and Avoid Patterns.
Dan, Cassie, and Nia provide you with good examples of how their Use as Needed Patterns can help balance the use oftheir other Patterns. Dan Uses Precision as Needed, while Nia Uses Technical Reasoning as Needed. Cassie has two Useas Needed Patterns, Sequence and Confluence. If they were aware of the potential power of their Use as NeededPatterns, their study sessions would be more productive. Dan could intensify his Precision and use the increasedenergy to address the degree of Precision the writing assignment is calling for, thus raising his confidence and loweringhis self-doubt. Cassie could awaken her Sequence and use it to feel more secure in following the assignment’sdirections. She could also use her Confluence to lessen her fear of doing the assignment incorrectly, and instead, freeup her Precision to be willing to take a little risk and trust that she is using the right words when she makes herpoints in her analysis.
Nia also has a Pattern that could help her regulate her study behaviors. In Nia’s case, it is her Use as Needed Pattern ofTechnical Reasoning. If she were to intensify it, she would be better prepared to complete her written responsebecause her Technical Reasoning would demand that she carefully craft it to meet the assignment’s specifications. Ofcourse, Nia also has three Patterns that she Uses First that drive her behaviors as a student in ways that are not alwaysproductive. In many cases, she needs to tether them.
The term tether is applied to those Patterns you Use First. These are the Patterns that fall into the 25 to 35 range onthe LCI scoring continuum. These Patterns drive your life and your learning.
Of course, the challenge of using a combination of Use First Patterns in concert with your Avoid and Use as NeededPatterns is to do so with intention. In the case of your Use First Patterns, you must stay alert for when thesedominating Patterns need to be tethered—that is, pulled back, held down, or restrained.
Tethering involves addressing those mental processes that leave you feeling self-assured and confident. Theysometimes must be restrained because Use First Patterns do not necessarily represent competence. Their confidence issometimes misplaced, particularly when they are not the dominant Patterns required for a task. Thus, tethering yourUse First Patterns helps you gain perspective and anchors you to the current reality of the assignment, and it preventsyou from getting stuck trying to do things the assignment doesn’t require or allow.
Dan, Cassie, and Nia all have Use First Patterns that warrant tethering because even Use First Patterns can mislead alearner. For example, Dan could benefit from tethering his Technical Reasoning (30), his tendency to use few words,which can inhibit his Use as Needed Precision (18). In the case of the assignment calling for an analysis with detailedsupport from three sources, he needs to intensify his Precision and tether his Technical Reasoning in order to write apaper of an acceptable length, with sufficient supporting details.
Cassie could benefit from tethering her Precision (29) because it makes demands for perfection on virtually everythingshe does. Her Sequence (20) never organizes well enough; her Confluence (22) never has good enough ideas; and herTechnical Reasoning (10) is virtually ignored because it doesn’t help her have the precise words to assist her whenwriting. When Cassie doesn’t tether her Precision, all of her other Patterns are stifled.
Nia’s three Use First Patterns are a force to be reckoned with. Collectively, her Sequence (33), Precision (32), andConfluence (27) have her believing she can tune out the rest of the world and listen only to what she perceives to bethe right structure (Sequence), the best answer (Precision), and the greatest idea (Confluence). Tethering for Nia isvital. Only then will she be able to connect to the world outside of herself. Left untethered, Nia is destined to continuedown an isolated pathway as a Strong-Willed learner unable to recognize how she allowed her Patterns to ambush hersuccess.
“FITing” your Patterns to a task takes energy. The task at hand must be carefully and accurately decoded. The amountof resources needed to accomplish the task needs to be carefully assessed. Consequently, it is vital that you giveyourself the space emotionally, mentally, and physically to FIT your Patterns to the task. Build in opportunities toregenerate your energy if you have been tethering or forging your Patterns for several hours at a time, because themental workout you will experience is every bit as tiring as an hour or two at the gym.
Know, however, that the effort is well worth it. Never underestimate the tremendous feeling of accomplishment thatawaits you when you have succeeded in completing a task to a degree that you have not achieved before. Always keepin mind that “Learning strategies are most effective when students can make informed choices about which strategiesto use in particular learning situations” (Lovett, 2008).
Phase 3: Rehearse
A change in study behavior does not happen without practice. The metacognitive term is rehearse , a robust form ofpractice. Rehearse involves studying the situation, preparing to meet expectations, running through the actual sequenceof completing the assigned task or test, and then repeating the actions for the purpose of improving your performanceor outcome. The rehearse phase allows your Patterns to go through a trial run to make certain that the performance ofthe task, the completion of the project, and/or the public presentation will meet the standards set by the instructor.Rehearsal prepares for expression by allowing any mistakes to be identified and corrected in advance of submitting thefinal product.
The centerpiece of the rehearsal phase is the personal learning tool called the strategy card. After decoding andstrategizing how to FIT your Patterns to the task, you can use your knowledge of your Patterns to develop personalstrategies to direct your efforts. The most efficient way to do this is to develop a personal strategy card (see Figure4.6).
Figure 4.6: Personal Strategy Card
Strategy cards convert general study skills into personalized strategies for learning based on each learner’sPatterns.
Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.
Personal strategy cards are essential to effective rehearsal because they help you address the requirements that youhave decoded from the assignment and they help you connect to the instructor’s expectations. Strategy cards help youorganize your approach to achieving success. They allow you to practice “smarter, not harder.” You are more effectivewhen you develop a strategy card for each major task or assignment. In doing so, you become more disciplined andyou match your efforts to each requirement. Dan, Cassie, and Nia can each benefit from developing personal strategycards to guide their study and completion of work.
Dan begins his next assignment using some personal learning strategies and tools. See Figure 4.7 for the newassignment, which Dan has decoded. Then, using a strategy card, he matches his Patterns to the task, and developsstrategies that will help him see the path to being successful, and thereby motivate him to complete the task efficientlyand effectively.
Figure 4.7: Dan’s Decoding of a New Assignment
After decoding his assignment, what Patterns does Dan now know he needsto use?
Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.
Before he understood himself as a learner, Dan would have looked at the task and given up. Now that he knows how tometacognitively make his Patterns work for him, he invests himself in completing the task. Read through Dan’s strategycard (see Figure 4.8). What can you learn from Dan’s example?
Figure 4.8: Dan’s Strategy Card
After decoding his assignment, the personal strategy card helps him FIT his Patterns to the Patterns theassignment requires.
Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.
Now it’s your turn. Using the same assignment as Dan, complete a strategy card in Worksheet 4.2. Begin by filling inyour LCI scores and explaining the degree to which you use each of your Patterns. Remember, you can refer to thePersonal Learning Profile you developed in Chapter 2.
Next, look at the assignment again in Figure 4.7. How well does what you are being asked to do match with yourLearning Patterns? Where are your Patterns comfortable? Where do you experience a sense of discomfort? Once youhave identified the fit of your Patterns to the task, begin to fill in your strategy card.
Note that in order to FIT who you are as a learner to the assignment, you may need to use strategies in just one area,or in several. See how well your Patterns match or to what degree you will need to forge, intensify, and tether in each.Then complete the worksheet.
Worksheet 4.2: Your Personal Strategy Card
How will this personal strategy card help you with your next assignment?
Source: © Let Me Learn, Inc.
Recording the strategies you use to achieve success in one assignment creates a resource bank that you can draw onthe next time you are confronted with a similar one. Having a set of effective strategies also raises your confidence anddecreases your self-doubt. Having personal learning strategies disciplines you to put forth intentional, focused effort.Developing a strategy card requires you to invest, not avoid, and dig deeper, rather than skim the surface of the task athand. Using a strategy card keeps you grounded in the requirements of each assignment and able to use your LearningPatterns skillfully.
Phase 4: Attend
In order to maintain the level of insight you gained about yourself as you rehearsed, you will need to attend to usingthe strategies that brought you to a new level of achievement. Often, students who begin to use personal strategy cardsthat help them understand, study, and complete learning tasks set them by the wayside once they have learned how tocomplete certain types of assignments successfully. They decide to operate on autopilot, based on the strategies theyhave used so far. In doing so, they jeopardize all the study ground they have just conquered. They can quickly findthemselves back to square one, especially when a new type of assignment rattles them. (Author’s note: As one whoavoids Sequence, I frequently create a strategy card to help meet book deadlines or to complete what for me aretedious tasks, such as writing a grant proposal that is based on a strict set of requirements that allow for no deviationfrom the format. It works on many levels, personally and professionally.)
The metacognitive phase that cautions you to attend to—that is, to pay attention to—a task also disciplines you to stayfocused and not waver from the high level of performance you have developed when using your personal strategies.Attending to a learning task is to be in an active state of focus, clearing away distractions, and concentrating on whatyou need to consciously do to complete the task well. To attend means you don’t let up; you’ll continue to operate at ahigh level of focused energy. The reason this is so important is that when you submit your work, or complete anassessment, or in any way perform the action that you have been rehearsing, you want it to occur at the same highlevel of performance that you achieved during the rehearsal phase.
How many times have you seen a playoff in which one team wins its division easily and must wait for its opponents tofinish out a close series? When they finally begin the playoffs, supposedly as the dominant team, the team’s play islackluster. Often, they can’t get back the mojo they had in the earlier round. The team that finishes first often loses itsability to attend at the same level as the rival team that experienced no downtime. The attend phase of metacognitionis when you need to be coaching, encouraging, and challenging your Learning Patterns to be on alert and to continuedoing the work of intentional learning.
Phase 5: Express
To express means to go public with what you have been rehearsing. It’s the real thing. To reach the metacognitivephase of express indicates that you have mulled, decoded, connected, FITed, rehearsed, developed personal strategies,and attended to maintaining a high level of performance. The paper being submitted is your best work. The projectbeing presented is your best work. The comments being posted represent your best effort. All of your effort has beenprocessed and refined. It is the result of not mere study habits, but the metacognitive behaviors of an intentionallearner determined to succeed.
Phase 6: Reflective Practice—Assess, Reflect, Revisit
The final phases of metacognition form the basis of something called reflective practice, which is actually a part ofcritical thinking. Reflective practice is also known as double-looped learning because it takes you back to examine thedefining questions you asked yourself as you entered into doing the assignment (your assumptions, actions, anddecisions) and the results you achieved at the conclusion (success, partial success, or failure). Reflective practice allowsyou to learn from your decisions and actions while determining their effectiveness. Don’t skip these vital stages, as theyhelp you gain confidence and avoid repeating any mistakes.
The metacognitive phases, when faithfully followed, always include a time to assess. Unlike external assessment ortesting, the assess phase of metacognition means confronting questions internally, such as “What have I reallyachieved?” and “To what degree have I achieved it?”
You need to ask yourself, “What is the outcome of my effort?” and let the feedback from your instructor lead you toconsider the results of your efforts. The metacognitive phase that follows links to this one—it too focuses on thequestion, “What is the outcome of my effort?”
When you reflect, you begin your internal conversation with “As a result of my effort, I. . ..” and you conclude with,”Next time, I will. . .” When you reflect, you ask, “Where does the buck stop? Who is responsible for this success? Thisfailure? This mess?”
This is the piece of professional and personal growth you may have been missing. After all, anyone can use the phrase”mistakes have been made” to anonymously attribute failure and blame. But only mindful individuals with a clear senseof their personal Learning Patterns face themselves (Osterman & Kottkamp, 2004) and say precisely, “I screwed up, andI am prepared to take the heat for it.”
Nia, the Strong-Willed learner, avoids this phase of learning at all costs. Her unwillingness to reflect costs her. Usingyour metacognition well equips you to reach a powerful self-awareness and to be open to ask, “What did I allow myselfto do? What did I fail to do? Where did my Learning Patterns steer me off course?”
This is the autopsy of failure and of success. Without intentionally focusing on your actions, approaches, and thoughts,you are doomed to continue to achieve less than you could. You cannot continue to repeat the same actions, believingthat they will yield a different outcome. Reflection requires us to face ourselves—specifically how we have used ourmetacognitive talk and our self-correcting opportunities and how we have failed to do so. This is the key to being anintentional learner.
The good news found in reflective practice is that it does not conclude with simply assigning blame or with rewardingsuccess. Reflective practice invites you instead to revisit your metacognitive phases, noting both those that enrichedand those that frustrated your venture. Revisiting metacognitive decisions serves to reinforce the specific strategiesthat led to success and to reconsider those that led to failure. Revisiting grows both metacognitive capacity andpersonal insight.
There is no doubt that when you understand your Learning Patterns and are aware of the internal talk of your Patternsas they work through the metacognitive phases, you are well equipped, as Peter Senge, the guru of professionaldevelopment, describes, “to consistently enhance your capacity to produce results that are truly important to you”(1999, p. 45).