CATASTROPHE THEORY… OCCURS WHEN? WHAT DOES THE GRAPH LOOK LIKE. Arousal: is a blend of physiological and psychological activity in a person and it refers to the intensity dimensions of motivation at a particular moment. It ranges from not aroused, to completely aroused, to highly aroused; this is when individuals are mentally and physically activated.
- Performance increases as arousal increases but when arousal gets too high performance dramatically decreases. This is usually caused by the performer becoming anxious and sometimes making wrong decisions. Catastrophes is caused by a combination of cognitive and somatic anxieties. Cognitive is the internal worries of not performing well while somatic is the physical effects of muscle tension/butterflies and fatigue through playing.
- The graph is an inverted U where the x line is the arousal and the y is the performance. Performance peaks on the top of the inverted U and the catastrophe happens in the fall of the inverted U
This is a brief description on the theory cover this in detail about ronaldo and how this applies when he plays football 2 pages
HIGH TRAIT ANXIETY ATHLETES… HOW DO THEY PERCEIVE COMPETITION?
get some quotes on him mentioning competition and how he perfromance in it
- Anxiety: is a negative emotional state in which feelings of nervousness, worry and apprehension are associated with activation or arousal of the body
- Trait Anxiety: is a behavioral disposition to perceive as threatening circumstances that objectively may not be dangerous and to then respond with disproportionate state anxiety.
- Somatic Trait Anxiety: the degree to which one typically perceived heightened physical symptoms (muscle tension)
- Cognitive Trait Anxiety: the degree to which one typically worries or has self doubt
- Concentration Disruption: the degree to which one typically has concentration disruption during competition
People usually with high trait anxiety usually have more state anxiety in highly competitive evaluative situations than do people with lower trait anxiety. Example two athletes are playing basketball and both are physically and statistically the same both have to shoot a final free throw to win the game. Athlete A is more laid back which means his trait anxiety is lower and he doesn’t view the final shot as a overly threatening. Athlete B has a high trait anxiety and because of that he perceives the final shot as very threatening. This has an effect on his state anxiety much more than expected in this specific scenario.
HIGHLY SKILLED ATHLETES EXPERIENCE LESS STATE ANXIETY AND MORE CONFIDENCE
- State Anxiety: an emotional state characterized by subjective consciously perceived feelings of apprehension and tension accompanied by or associated with activation or arousal of the autonomic nervous system.
- Cognitive State Anxiety: moment to moment changes in worries and negative thoughts
- Somatic State Anxiety: moment to moment changes in perceived physiological arousal
- Perceived Control State Anxiety: the degree to which one has the resources and ability to meet challenges
Example player playing basketball at the start of the game he or she may have a slightly elevated level of anxiety before tip off ( nervous feeling heart pumping), lower level once he/she settles into the pace of the game, and then an extremely high level in the closing minute of the game (feeling nervous with his/her heart racing)
HOW ATHLETES PERCEIVE THEIR ANXIETY AND PERFORMANCE
- There is a direct relationship between a person’s level of trait anxiety and state anxiety. Research shows that the athletes who score high on trait anxiety measure a high state anxiety in competition. But this varies a highly trait anxious athlete may have a lot of experience in a particular situation and therefore not perceive it as a threat and have a high state anxiety.
Mention all this of the second concept and how it motivates ronaldo all these concepts need to be covered in detail to get a good understanding of ronaldos motivations and how he performs under pressure and how he deal with it 2 pages with quotes from him and sources
4 STAGE COMPETITIVE PROCESS/ OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS/ MOST IMPORTANT DETERMINANT OF INTRINSIC MOTIVATION= SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTIONS OF PERFORMANCE
- The objective competitive situation
- The persons objective and goal is set
- Martens states that it is better studied when the objective is told to another person
Example Athlete A runs a mile in 8 min and his goal is to hit under 8 today this is competition because only you are aware of the standard of excellence you are striving to beat. Marthens run with a friend and tell him that his goal is to run under 8 min the situation would be competitive because your friend is aware of the criteria.
- The subjective competitive situation
- How the person perceives, accepts, and appraises the objective competitive situation
Example Athlete A is looking forward in competing in the UEFA Champions League, whereas another athlete, Athlete B which is facing the same objective situation may not be looking forward to competing
- The response
- If the decision is not to compete then the response stops there
- Response to compete can occur at the behavioral, physiological or psychological level or at all three levels
Example Behavioral what type of opponent you might want to fight with whether it’s a tough opponent, easy, or better than you. Physiological level heart starts to beat faster and your hands become cold and clammy. Psychological motivation confidence, can be internal or external.
- The consequences of the response
- Are seen as either positive or negative
- The perception of the consequence is more important than the objective outcome
Example Athlete A loses the match the athlete might still perceive the outcome as positive if he played well and met his own standard of excellence.
All the pages are double spaced