NUR699 WEEK 3 DISCUSSION QUESTION 1 Topic 3 DQ 1 What levels of evidence are present in relation to research and practice, and why it is important regardless of the method you use?

Solution 1 In evidence-based practice (EBP), it is necessary to distinguish the term “evidence” from the term “proof”, since evidence is not necessary proof, there are several levels of evidence. Evidence can be so weak that it is not convincing enough to be proof, and even when an evidence is strong, there is always place for doubts. So, it is necessary to have a hierarchy to determine which evidence is more authoritative. Per Levin and Chang, (2014), authors of the article “Tactics for Teaching Evidenced-Based Practice: Determining the Level of Evidence of a Study”, there are 6 levels of evidence: • Level I – Systematic Reviews. • Level II – Single Experimental Studies. • Level III – Quasi-Experimental Studies. • Level IV – Non- Experimental Studies. • Level V – Case Report/Program Evaluation/Narrative Literature Reviews. • Level VI – Opinions of respected authorities (p.76). It is important to give priority to the Level I, since it is the level where evidence is stronger. If it is not available, then “the search for evidence to answer the PICOT question should then proceed down the evidence pyramid” (Levin & Chang, 2014, p. 75). The levels of evidence are an important topic, since it helps researchers to answer the PICOT question. The stronger evidences are, the best decisions will be taken, Burns et al., (2011), teache that researchers, “are encouraged to find the highest level of evidence to answer clinical questions” (p. 1). References: Burns, P. B., Rohrich, R. J., & Chung, K. C. (2011, July). The Levels of Evidence and their role in Evidence- Based Medicine.Plast Reconstr Surg, 128(1), 1-11. Levin, R. F., & Chang, A. (2014, Feb). Tactics for teaching evidenced‐based practice: Determining the level of evidence of a study. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 11(1), 75- 78.

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